Home Health Tips Understanding Underactive Thyroid: Causes & Care

Understanding Underactive Thyroid: Causes & Care


In today’s article, we will explore the topic of underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to a variety of health problems if left untreated.

There are several causes of hypothyroidism, including autoimmune conditions like Hashimoto’s disease, thyroid surgery, radiation therapy, thyroiditis, and certain medications. This condition is more common in women and can occur at any age.

It is crucial to diagnose and treat underactive thyroid properly to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications. Treatment options include thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which helps restore the deficient thyroid hormones.

Throughout this article, we will delve into the symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis, and treatment options for underactive thyroid. Additionally, we will discuss natural remedies and lifestyle modifications that can support overall thyroid health.

Stay tuned for the valuable insights and information that will empower you to take control of your thyroid health. Let’s get started!

Symptoms of Underactive Thyroid

Recognizing and understanding the symptoms of underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism, is crucial for early detection and effective treatment. The symptoms can vary in severity and may develop slowly over time. Common symptoms include:

  • Tiredness: Fatigue and a general lack of energy are common signs of underactive thyroid.
  • Sensitivity to cold: Feeling cold, even in warm temperatures, is a common symptom of hypothyroidism.
  • Constipation: Hypothyroidism can slow down the digestive system, leading to constipation.
  • Weight gain: Unexplained weight gain or difficulty losing weight despite healthy habits can be a symptom.
  • Puffy face: Swelling and puffiness in the face, especially around the eyes, can be a sign of underactive thyroid.

In addition to these primary symptoms, individuals with hypothyroidism may experience a variety of other symptoms, including:

  • Hoarse voice
  • Dry skin
  • Muscle weakness
  • Muscle aches
  • Irregular or heavy menstrual cycles (in women)
  • Thinning hair
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Depression
  • Memory problems


“Recognizing the symptoms of underactive thyroid is essential for early detection and treatment. If you experience tiredness, sensitivity to cold, constipation, weight gain, or notice a puffy face, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional.”

Symptoms of Underactive Thyroid

Primary Symptoms Additional Symptoms Infant Symptoms
Tiredness Hoarse voice Feeding problems
Sensitivity to cold Dry skin Poor growth
Constipation Muscle weakness Enlarged tongue
Weight gain Muscle aches
Puffy face Irregular or heavy menstrual cycles

Causes of Underactive Thyroid

There are several factors that can cause hypothyroidism, also known as underactive thyroid. By understanding the causes, you can better manage and treat this condition.

Autoimmune Disease

One of the most common causes of underactive thyroid is an autoimmune disease called Hashimoto’s disease. In this condition, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, leading to reduced hormone production.

Thyroid Surgery

In some cases, surgical removal of the thyroid gland can cause hypothyroidism. This can happen if the surgery decreases the thyroid’s ability to produce hormones or if the entire gland is removed.

Radiation Therapy

Individuals who have undergone radiation therapy for head and neck cancers may develop underactive thyroid as a side effect. The radiation can damage the thyroid gland and impair its hormone production.


Thyroiditis refers to the inflammation of the thyroid gland. This inflammation can disrupt the normal functioning of the thyroid and lead to decreased hormone production.


Certain medications, such as lithium, can interfere with thyroid hormone production and contribute to an underactive thyroid. It is important to discuss any potential side effects with your healthcare provider if you are taking medications that may affect your thyroid function.

Congenital Hypothyroidism

In rare cases, infants may be born without a functioning thyroid gland, leading to congenital hypothyroidism. This requires immediate medical attention and lifelong treatment to ensure proper hormone levels and normal development.

The causes of underactive thyroid can vary, and it is crucial to identify the underlying cause in order to effectively manage the condition. By working closely with your healthcare provider, you can develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses the specific cause of your hypothyroidism.

Cause Description
Autoimmune Disease Hashimoto’s disease, where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland
Thyroid Surgery Removal of the thyroid gland, which can reduce hormone production
Radiation Therapy Head and neck cancer treatments that damage the thyroid gland
Thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland
Medications Lithium and other drugs that interfere with thyroid hormone production
Congenital Hypothyroidism Infants born without a functioning thyroid gland

Complications of Underactive Thyroid

Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to various complications that affect different parts of the body. These complications may arise due to the underproduction of thyroid hormones, which are essential for regulating metabolism and maintaining overall health.

1. Goiter

A common complication of underactive thyroid is the development of a goiter, which is an enlarged thyroid gland. A goiter can cause discomfort and may lead to difficulties with swallowing or breathing. It is important to detect and manage goiter through proper medical care.

2. Heart Problems

Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and heart failure. The lack of thyroid hormones can affect heart function, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and an irregular heartbeat. Managing thyroid levels is crucial for maintaining cardiovascular health.

3. Peripheral Neuropathy

Another complication of underactive thyroid is peripheral neuropathy, a condition that affects the peripheral nerves in the arms and legs. This can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected areas. Proper treatment of hypothyroidism can help alleviate peripheral neuropathy symptoms.

4. Infertility

In women, hypothyroidism can interfere with ovulation, leading to difficulties in getting pregnant. Imbalances in thyroid hormone levels can disrupt the menstrual cycle and affect reproductive function. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve fertility outcomes.

5. Birth Defects

Untreated hypothyroidism in pregnant individuals increases the risk of birth defects and developmental problems in their babies. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in fetal growth and development. It is important for pregnant individuals with underactive thyroid to receive proper medical care to minimize these risks.

Proper management and treatment of underactive thyroid are crucial in minimizing the risk of these complications. Regular medical check-ups and adherence to prescribed medications help ensure optimal thyroid function and overall well-being.

Diagnosing Underactive Thyroid

Diagnosing underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism, involves conducting specific blood tests to assess the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) in your blood. These tests provide essential insights into your thyroid hormone levels, allowing healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose the condition.

A high level of TSH in combination with low levels of T4 indicates an underactive thyroid. This hormonal imbalance affects the body’s metabolism, energy production, and overall well-being. With proper diagnosis, appropriate treatment and management plans can be developed to address the underlying cause and alleviate symptoms.

In some cases, additional tests such as imaging tests or a thyroid ultrasound may be performed to evaluate the size and structure of your thyroid gland. These tests help healthcare professionals gain a comprehensive understanding of your thyroid health and ensure accurate diagnosis.

If you suspect you have symptoms of underactive thyroid, it is crucial to consult a healthcare provider who can perform the necessary blood tests and other diagnostic procedures. Proper diagnosis is the first step towards effective treatment and improved quality of life.

Diagnosing Underactive Thyroid: Key Points
Diagnosis involves blood tests to measure levels of TSH, T4, and T3 hormones
High TSH levels and low T4 levels indicate underactive thyroid
Additional tests like imaging or ultrasound may be performed for a comprehensive evaluation
Seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of underactive thyroid

Treating Underactive Thyroid

The primary treatment for hypothyroidism is thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones, such as levothyroxine, to replace the deficient thyroid hormones. The dosage will be adjusted based on regular blood tests to ensure optimal hormone levels.

It is important to take the medication as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to attend regular check-ups to monitor thyroid function. Compliance with medication and regular monitoring plays a crucial role in managing underactive thyroid effectively.

Lifestyle modifications can also complement medical treatment for better management of underactive thyroid. Some lifestyle changes that may be beneficial include:

  • Maintaining a balanced diet: Consuming a diet rich in nutrients, particularly iodine and selenium, can support thyroid health.
  • Managing stress levels: Chronic stress can potentially impact thyroid function, so it is important to engage in relaxation techniques and stress-reducing activities.
  • Incorporating regular exercise: Physical activity can help boost metabolism and support overall well-being.
  • Prioritizing sleep: Getting enough quality sleep is essential for hormonal balance and overall health.

Discuss these lifestyle modifications with your healthcare provider to ensure they are appropriate for your specific condition and overall health.

“Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for underactive thyroid.”

Natural Remedies for Underactive Thyroid

While medication is the mainstay of treatment for underactive thyroid, there are also natural remedies and lifestyle modifications that may help manage the condition. Incorporating these strategies into your daily routine can complement medical treatment and improve your overall well-being.

Dietary Changes

A balanced diet plays a crucial role in supporting thyroid function. Ensure that your meals include foods rich in iodine and selenium, as these minerals are essential for proper thyroid hormone production. Good sources of iodine include seaweed, seafood, and iodized salt. Selenium-rich foods include Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, and mushrooms.

Stress Management

Chronic stress can negatively impact thyroid function and exacerbate symptoms of underactive thyroid. Finding effective stress management techniques, such as practicing mindfulness or engaging in relaxation exercises, can help reduce stress levels and support thyroid health.

Regular Exercise

Engaging in regular physical activity can help boost your metabolism and improve thyroid function. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, such as walking, swimming, or cycling, on most days of the week. Consult with your healthcare provider before starting any new exercise program.

Getting Enough Sleep

Adequate sleep is essential for overall health and well-being, including optimal thyroid function. Aim for 7-9 hours of quality sleep each night to support your body’s natural healing processes and hormone balance.

“Maintaining a balanced lifestyle that includes a nutritious diet, regular exercise, stress management, and adequate sleep can support optimal thyroid function.”

Some individuals may find certain supplements helpful in improving thyroid function. For example, ashwagandha, an adaptogenic herb, has been traditionally used to support thyroid health. Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fatty fish like salmon and mackerel, have also been associated with improved thyroid function. However, it is important to discuss any supplements or natural remedies with your healthcare provider before adding them to your routine to ensure they do not interfere with your medication or existing medical conditions.

A holistic approach that combines natural remedies, lifestyle modifications, and medical treatment can help effectively manage underactive thyroid and promote overall wellness.

Natural Remedies for Underactive Thyroid Benefits
Maintaining a balanced diet with iodine and selenium Supports thyroid hormone production
Practicing stress management techniques Reduces stress levels and supports thyroid health
Engaging in regular exercise Boosts metabolism and improves thyroid function
Getting enough sleep Supports natural healing processes and hormone balance
Taking supplements like ashwagandha or omega-3 fatty acids Potential benefits in improving thyroid function

Hypothyroidism in Infants and Children

Hypothyroidism can affect infants and children, and in some cases, it may be present at birth. This condition is known as congenital hypothyroidism. Early detection and treatment are crucial to prevent developmental problems and ensure the child’s healthy growth.

In infants, symptoms of hypothyroidism may include feeding problems, poor growth, constipation, and a hoarse cry. These signs should not be ignored, as prompt medical attention is essential.

Fortunately, newborns in the United States are routinely screened for hypothyroidism shortly after birth, allowing for early diagnosis and intervention. This screening helps identify infants who may have congenital hypothyroidism.

Children and teens with hypothyroidism may exhibit symptoms similar to those seen in adults, such as fatigue and weight gain. However, they may also experience delayed growth, delayed puberty, and poor mental development. Recognizing these symptoms and seeking medical evaluation is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment for hypothyroidism in infants and children usually involves thyroid hormone replacement therapy. The aim is to provide the necessary hormones that the thyroid gland cannot produce. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and dosage adjustments are important to ensure optimal thyroid function in this age group.

Early detection and appropriate treatment of hypothyroidism in infants and children play a significant role in managing the condition and supporting healthy development.

Risk Factors for Underactive Thyroid

Understanding the risk factors associated with underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, can help you take proactive steps to protect your thyroid health. Several factors increase the likelihood of developing this condition.


Women are more susceptible to underactive thyroid than men, particularly after menopause. Hormonal changes and fluctuations can influence thyroid function, making women more prone to hypothyroidism. Regular monitoring and early detection are essential for women in managing their thyroid health.

Family History

If you have a family history of thyroid disease or autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto’s disease or type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing underactive thyroid is higher. Genetic factors play a role in thyroid function, and being aware of your family’s medical history can help you stay vigilant about potential thyroid issues.

Autoimmune Disease

Having an autoimmune disease, such as Hashimoto’s disease, increases the likelihood of developing hypothyroidism. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, impairing its ability to produce adequate hormones. Regular check-ups and communication with your healthcare provider are crucial if you have an autoimmune condition.

Radiation Therapy

Individuals who have undergone radiation therapy as part of their treatment for neck or chest cancers face an increased risk of developing hypothyroidism. Radiation can damage the thyroid gland or compromise its functionality. If you have a history of radiation therapy, you should remain vigilant and regularly monitor your thyroid function.

Thyroid Surgery

Those who have undergone surgery to remove part or all of their thyroid gland are also at a higher risk of developing underactive thyroid. Thyroid surgery may disrupt the normal functioning of the gland, affecting hormone production. Careful monitoring is necessary after thyroid surgery to ensure optimal thyroid function.

By understanding these risk factors, you can be proactive in managing your thyroid health. Regular check-ups, awareness of your family history, and adopting a healthy lifestyle can help you maintain optimal thyroid function.

When to See a Doctor for Underactive Thyroid

If you are experiencing symptoms of an underactive thyroid, it is crucial to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Your healthcare provider will be able to assess your symptoms, perform necessary tests, and recommend appropriate management strategies. Some common symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Changes in menstrual cycles

These symptoms may be indicators of an underactive thyroid and should not be ignored. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve your overall quality of life.

If you have already been diagnosed with an underactive thyroid and are on thyroid hormone medication, it is important to attend regular check-ups with your healthcare provider. These check-ups will allow your provider to monitor your thyroid function and ensure that your medication dosage is appropriate. Regular visits to your doctor will help optimize your treatment plan and ensure that your thyroid hormone levels are well-maintained.

Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is the standard treatment for hypothyroidism, also known as underactive thyroid. The most commonly prescribed medication for this condition is levothyroxine, a synthetic thyroid hormone that helps to replace the deficient hormones in the body.

The dosage of levothyroxine will vary for each individual, depending on their specific needs and response to the medication. It is crucial to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate dosage for optimal treatment outcomes. Regular blood tests are required to monitor the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood and make any necessary dosage adjustments.

When starting thyroid hormone replacement therapy, it is important to follow the prescribed dosage and take the medication as directed by the healthcare provider. Consistency is key in achieving optimal thyroid hormone levels and managing symptoms effectively.

Hormone levels can fluctuate over time, so it is vital to maintain regular communication with a healthcare provider. Blood tests will help determine if any adjustments to the dosage are needed to keep thyroid hormone levels within the desired range.

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy, in combination with regular monitoring and adjustments, can help individuals with underactive thyroid lead a healthy and balanced life. It is an essential part of managing the condition and preventing complications.

Benefits of Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy Risks and Side Effects of Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Restores thyroid hormone levels
  • Relieves symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue and weight gain
  • Improves energy levels and overall well-being
  • Helps regulate metabolism
  • Prevents complications associated with untreated hypothyroidism
  • Improper dosage may lead to symptoms of hyperthyroidism
  • Allergic reactions to the medication
  • Interactions with other medications
  • Potential for overmedication
  • Monitoring required to prevent under or overmedication

Understanding Thyroid Health

To maintain your overall well-being, it is essential to understand the importance of thyroid health. The thyroid gland, located in your neck, plays a crucial role in regulating your metabolism, energy production, and various bodily functions. Thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are responsible for controlling your body’s metabolic rate.

A balanced lifestyle is key to supporting optimal thyroid function. Start by adopting a nutritious diet that includes foods rich in iodine, selenium, zinc, and vitamin D, which are vital for thyroid hormone production. Regular exercise helps stimulate thyroid hormone secretion and enhances metabolism. Incorporate stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, to reduce the impact of stress on your thyroid. Prioritize adequate sleep, as sleep deprivation can disrupt thyroid hormone balance.

Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are vital, especially if you have a family history of thyroid disease or other risk factors. Routine monitoring allows for early detection of any abnormalities in your thyroid function. Your healthcare provider can perform blood tests to assess thyroid hormone levels and adjust medication or treatment, if necessary. Remember, taking proactive steps to prioritize your thyroid health contributes to your overall wellness.


What is underactive thyroid?

Underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism, occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

What are the symptoms of underactive thyroid?

Common symptoms of underactive thyroid include fatigue, increased sensitivity to cold, constipation, weight gain, a puffy face, and hoarse voice.

What causes underactive thyroid?

Underactive thyroid can be caused by conditions such as Hashimoto’s disease, thyroid surgery, radiation therapy, thyroiditis, and certain medications.

What complications can arise from underactive thyroid?

Complications of underactive thyroid may include goiter, heart problems, peripheral neuropathy, infertility, and an increased risk of birth defects.

How is underactive thyroid diagnosed?

Underactive thyroid is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) in the blood.

What is the treatment for underactive thyroid?

The primary treatment for underactive thyroid is thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones like levothyroxine.

Are there natural remedies for underactive thyroid?

While medication is the mainstay of treatment, natural remedies like lifestyle modifications, dietary changes, stress management, and exercise can complement medical treatment.

Can infants and children have underactive thyroid?

Yes, infants and children can have underactive thyroid, which is known as congenital hypothyroidism in newborns and may cause delayed growth and development in children.

What are the risk factors for underactive thyroid?

Risk factors for underactive thyroid include being female, having a family history of thyroid or autoimmune disease, and undergoing radiation therapy or thyroid surgery.

When should I see a doctor for underactive thyroid?

It is important to see a doctor if you experience symptoms of underactive thyroid or if you are already on thyroid hormone medication and need regular monitoring.

What is thyroid hormone replacement therapy?

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy involves taking synthetic thyroid hormone medication, such as levothyroxine, to replace the deficient thyroid hormones.

How can I maintain thyroid health?

Maintaining a balanced lifestyle with a nutritious diet, regular exercise, stress management, and adequate sleep can support optimal thyroid function.